The United States is a federal republic of 50 states, with a federal district, five autonomous territories, a collection of scattered islands, a total area of 8.9 million square kilometers and a population of 325 million. Joe Biden is the current president. It is the fourth largest country in the world and the third largest in terms of population. Its capital is Washington, D.C., and New York is its most populous city. The US is bordered by Canada in the north and Mexico in the south.
History and Geography
America’s extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife make it one of the 17 countries with the most biodiversity. The current US Constitution was adopted in 1788 with ten amendments, collectively called the United States Bill of Rights. The Constitution was adopted in 1791 and guarantees all fundamental civil liberties. In the 19th century, the United States resolutely engaged in land development throughout North America. Also during this century, Native Americans were forced out of their land and new states were gradually established.
The American-Spanish War and World War I established the United States as a global military superpower. In World War II, the United States emerged as a superpower, the first and only country to use atomic bombs in the war, and is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed considerably in their space programs. The competition culminated in the Apollo 11 project. After the end of the Cold War in 1991 and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States became the only superpower in the world. It shares a land border with Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. It also shares borders with Russia in northwestern United States, off the coast of Alaska. The 48 interconnected states that make up the mainland extend east and southeast to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, and west to the Pacific Ocean.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations (UN), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, the Organization of American States (OAS), and a number of other international organisations. It has the world’s largest GDP, which is about one-fourth of the global GDP.
The US economy is a huge post-industrial economy that excels in services and is one of the world’s leading knowledge-based economies. The country ranks second in the world in terms of production. It is the world’s first importer and second largest exporter. Although the United States has only 4.3% of the world’s population, it owns 33.4% of the world’s wealth.
The United States has the largest share of world wealth in the world and ranks high globally in terms of several socio-economic indicators, such as the average wage, the Human Development Index per capita GDP, and per capita profitability. It has the most powerful armed forces in the world and its military budget and expenditure is equivalent to one-third of the world’s total military budget.
Its largest cities are New York City (NYC), on the East Coast of the country, Los Angeles on the West Coast, and Chicago in Midwestern US, respectively.
The political system of the US is a federal republic, and its constitution is based on the three axes of separation of powers, the electoral system and the federal system. The US Legislature or Congress is made up of two houses, the House and the Senate, which are fully responsible for legislation.
Representatives of these assemblies are elected by direct popular vote, and no institution in the United States has the power to dissolve the assemblies. The United States House of Representatives, with 435 members, and the United States Senate, with 100 members, co-legislate. The President of the United States is also elected by direct popular vote and through the votes of the electoral college, and has full authority to select the vice president. The POTUS is elected for a four-year term, and election for another four-year term is unrestricted.
The process of electing the president, with the special complexities that exist in the primary elections of the candidates of the two major parties in this country, can practically take a year. Despite a multi-party system, the Republican and Democratic parties have effectively dominated the political scene. The position of members of Congress and state governors are often distributed among candidates from both parties.
Under the United States Constitution, the Legislature or Congress is composed of two chambers that are fully responsible for legislation: the House of Representatives and the Senate. Under the US electoral system, representatives are elected by direct popular vote.
The Education system
99% of Americans have basic literacy. The age of compulsory education is 7 to 16 years. In this country, primary and secondary education is completely free and the government covers the costs. In the next stages of education, it provides students with low-interest loans, grants, scholarships, or pays their tuition fees. Harvard, William & Mary, Princeton, Columbia, and Pennsylvania are among the oldest centers of higher education in the US.
The US is a secular country in which all religions and denominations are free and the authorities remain neutral towards all religions; so it can be said that almost no restrictions are imposed on the followers of different faiths. The guarantee of this freedom of religions and sects is also in the constitution of the country.